Three Interesting Facts About Stainless Steel

Stainless steel is an iron-based alloy used primarily for its corrosion-resistance capabilities. Various stainless-steel grades are available, which differ in composition, but one key element they all share is a minimum presence of 10.5% percentage of chromium by mass. The addition of nickel and molybdenum also improves the corrosion resistance of the alloy, but chromium is always the deciding factor. Chromium forms an even layer of oxide on its surface which makes it stainless. The high chromium content makes stainless steel resistant to stains and rust.

In the year 1913, Harry Brearley of Sheffield, England, is often credited with the invention of “rustless steel,” but some do not agree with this. He first discovered the true ‘rustless’ steel, which had a 12.8% chromium content. Ernest Stuart had coined the term “stainless steel,” which then entered the general vocabulary. The success of stainless steel in the commercial market is because of its excellent physical and chemical properties. Besides high corrosion resistance, it is also resistant to heat (up to 1200°C [2192°F]), displays exceptional formability, weldability, and durability, and is not susceptible to rusting.

Arch City Steel is a leading distributor of stainless-steel products worldwide for chemical, petrochemical, fertilizer, pulp and paper, food, and other process industries. Over the years, the use of stainless steel has increased significantly because of its outstanding properties. More than 100 grades are now commercially available, which fall under five main groups: austenitic, martensitic, ferritic, duplex, and precipitation hardening. All of these groups contain varying quantities of alloying metals such as nickel, titanium, and copper.

Here are few interesting facts about stainless steel that you should know.

Stainless Steel Today

China very much dominates the world’s steel production. It is the largest producer of stainless steel in the world. The global stainless steel market size was valued at USD 111.4 billion in the year 2019. Between 2020 to 2027, it is expected that the concerned market will witness a CAGR of 6.3% in terms of revenue. Austenitic is arguably the most widely used and popular type of stainless steel. It often consists of chromium and nickel, and the grades within this group include 304 (1.4301) and 316 (1.4404).

Stainless Steel Can Be Magnetic (as per its structure)

While one may consider stainless steel to be non-magnetic, it can show magnetic properties based on its structure. Stainless steel can be classified according to its crystalline structure, as austenitic and ferritic. The presence of chromium and nickel in austenitic stainless steel makes it non-magnetic. However, the ferritic family is magnetic because of the large quantities of ferrite in its chemical composition.

Stainless Steel Is Recyclable

Stainless steel is theoretically 100% recyclable. Hence it is actively recycled on a large scale around the world. Most stainless steel products are recycled once they reach the end of their life. When stainless steel is recycled and melted down, various valuable alloys are extracted and reused, and it does not degrade the performance of this metal. The manufacture of the vast majority of stainless steel is carried out using previously recycled materials. Durability and recyclability are two critical contributions that stainless steel makes to sustainability.

To Conclude:

Stainless steel is a versatile material, and the growth of stainless steel is likely to increase because of its sustainability benefits. Hence, because of its various valuable properties, it is expected that stainless steel will increase in the coming times.

Top 4 Applications of 304 Stainless Steel in the Oil and Gas Industry You Must Know about

Are you deployed as a senior supervisor or in similar roles in an oil or gas plant? Then you must have to screen various parts, products, and equipment regularly to ensure uninterrupted workflow. However, sometimes even after performing regular checks, some parts of the transmission channel fail. Thus, the need to purchase 304 stainless steel tube is not new when the pipes carrying your oil or gas leak or develop other issues. In that case, you must find a quality-centric vendor of stainless-steel materials that can provide you with original pipes and tubes with guaranteed durability.


Now let’s see a few other crucial details about such metals before you purchase 304 stainless steel tube.


What are some typical applications of Stainless Steel?


  1. Flowlines


  1. Heat Exchangers


  1. Structural Components


  1. Process Equipment


What elements get used in the making of Stainless Steel?


Do you know that stainless steel is a specific metal type with at least 10.5% chromium content? Are you aware of the reason behind this? If not, let us tell you that the primary cause of adding alloying elements like chromium, nickel, nitrogen, copper, carbon, titanium, and molybdenum to stainless steel is the increased formability, strength, and other properties that are imparted in this metal.


Since you need to use stainless-steel products in the oil and gas industry, you must know that it comes in different versions with different levels of corrosion resistance. The main reason for using stainless steel in these industries is for onshore and offshore applications. Apart from that, this metal can withstand aggressive conditions such as harsh weather and high temperatures.


What are the best qualities of Stainless Steel?


Some of the finest qualities of stainless steel you must consider before buying it are high-temperature strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Not just that, it is also pretty easy to clean and doesn’t get stained or discoloured on rough usage. Oil and gas industry professionals use stainless steel due to its superior cryogenic toughness, increased hardness, higher work hardening rate, excellent flexibility, and other characteristics. As far as appearance goes, stainless steel pipes, tubes, or other products look more attractive than carbon steel. Above all, stainless steel is highly resistant to heat in high temperatures and high-performance working conditions.


What other industries use Stainless Steel?


  1. Ship-building


  1. Power generation


  1. Pulp and paper


  1. Pharmaceuticals


  1. Refinery and petrochemicals


On a closing note!


The reasons to buy 304 stainless steel tube doesn’t end here; it can go on and on. However, if you urgently need to purchase stainless steel materials, pick up your phone and give a call to a customer-oriented metallic products supplier in the United States. Make them understand your 304 stainless steel tube requirements as better as possible and ask them to provide a timeframe to deliver your order. Once you got the answer, place your order and complete the repair/rework tasks in your oil and gas industry.

Top 3 Benefits of 316 Stainless Steel Over 304 Grade That You Should Know

Where do you want to use stainless steel tubes in the marine, aerospace, or food and beverage industry? Asking this question is a must since the application of both 316, and 304 stainless steel tubes vary depending on the environment. For example, if you only want to pass oil and gas through SS pipes, then 304 grade might work for you. But if you’re going to use stainless steel tubes in marine applications, then 316 grade would be a better choice.

The primary reason behind this phenomenon is that salty water damages the protective oxide layer of 304 stainless steel, resulting in corrosion. But that’s not the case with 316 steel pipes. Let’s see some of the major benefits of 316 stainless steel tube that 304 lacks:

1 – Corrosion-resistant 

Have you ever wondered why 316 stainless steel pipes are more corrosion-resistant than 304 steel tubes? It’s the addition of molybdenum that helps 316-grade tubes fight rusting and maintain a longer life. Besides this, 316 stainless steel tube is the ideal material to use in highly acidic and caustic environments, given that molybdenum helps in reducing pitting. If you don’t know what pitting means, it is the extreme form of corrosion that causes small holes in metallic substances.

2 – Lasting durability 

The durability of 316 stainless steel tubes is more than its 304 counterparts. Its robust and versatile property makes it a perfect choice to build customized products that intend to last for years. What’s more, the engineers design 316-grade steel in such a way that it can withstand repeated exposure to high-impact processes.

3 – Marine applications  

Do you know that seawater or saltwater is not suitable for the health of metals? The chlorides are pretty harmful to stainless steel materials, especially 304 grade. That means the usage of 304 stainless steel materials in the marine industry might result in corrosion. But if you use grade 316 stainless steel pipes in marine applications, it will offer better salt and chloride pitting resistance.


Four Tips For Choosing The Right Stainless Steel Supplier

Stainless steels are iron-based alloys containing at least 10.5% chromium content and 1.2% or less carbon. The addition of different metals and elements such as nickel, molybdenum, titanium, nitrogen, and copper in varying amounts alter the properties of this stainless steel. There are different grades of stainless steel on tap, which makes it applicable for varied purposes. One of the most valuable properties of stainless steel is its ability to resist corrosion. The chromium content results in forming a chromium oxide film on the steel surface when it faces exposure to oxygen which imparts its corrosion resistance qualities.

Stainless steel is cost-effective and exhibits sufficient mechanical strength for use in different industrial and commercial purposes. The blend of good tensile strength, corrosion resistance, and toughness make it an industry-relevant material. Moreover, it has a long life-cycle and fully recyclable. Stainless steel can be welded in various forms such as plates, bars, sheets, and tubing based on the end-use. 304 stainless steel tube is the most commonly used type in industrial applications and kitchen equipment.

While choosing the correct grade and form of stainless steel, you also need to select the right supplier. Here are few essential factors in choosing the best stainless steel supplier.

Determine What You Need

Before you initiate your lookout for the best supplier, you need to conduct some preliminary research. How do you intend to use the stainless steel, in what form, and in what environment? Is stainless steel the best suitable material for that purpose? It will help you to align your supplier sourcing strategy to your objectives and requirements.

Quality Management System (QMS)

Quality is one of the essential factors you need to consider while choosing the right vendor. Ensure that the product complies with the standard quality management requirements. You can review the manufacturing process to ascertain if the stainless steel meets performance standards and qualifies for industrial use. Enquire if they have a quality management system for efficient manufacturing and testing processes for stainless steel.

Expertise And Knowledge

Look for accountability of the vendor in this field. Ensure that they have the necessary training and certifications to manufacture stainless steel materials per global and ISO standards. Some other essential certifications include safety certifications and industry certifications. Look for manufacturers who have substantial experience and a reputation in the marketplace. You can also review their client base and approach them for feedback to get an idea about their services.

Fabrication Services

It would help if you asked your supplier about the different fabrication services they offer. Check if they can access superior bending and cutting equipment, like vertical cutter, band saw, bend press, and plasma cutter, to fabricate your stainless steel product accurately with the correct dimensions. Stainless steel is available in different forms, such as flat, sheet, plate, tube, hexagonal, and more. Suitable stainless steel suppliers allow you to purchase the metal in the exact form and dimensions based on your preferences without enduring any metal wastage.

To Conclude:

These are some essential factors you need to keep in mind while finding the right stainless steel supplier. The vendor should have the proper certifications, testing mechanisms, and fabrication processes in place to yield the right shape and quality for your stainless steel products.


Four Important Things You Should Know About Duplex Stainless Steel

Duplex stainless steels are iron, nickel, and chromium (Fe-Ni-Cr) alloys. They are a popular grade in the stainless-steel family, and consist of two-phases in their metallurgical structure, that is, both the austenite and ferrite in equal proportions. Hence, they get their name from the austenite-ferrite micro-structure. They are useful in applications that require good corrosion resistance and strength.

Alloy 2205 duplex pipe finds varied use in different industries. It is typically used in applications for chemical processing, transfer, and storage, and in those systems that are subject to high stresses in chloride-containing environment. These pipes help to transport oil and gas, and also forms a part of heat exchangers and hydraulic tubing systems. The conception of duplex stainless steel was wrought on in the early 1930s.Duplex stainless steels has a chromium content of 22%–25%, with the additional presence of molybdenum, tungsten, and nitrogen. The alloy of austenite-ferrite in its microstructure imparts it a favorable combination of the parent grades.

This article lists the important aspects of duplex stainless-steel pipes.

Stress Corrosion Cracking (Scc) Resistance

SCC is the growth of cracks due to the effect of static and tensile stress in reactive environments. As duplex stainless steel pipe have higher strength and better toughness than ferritic grades, it does not succumb to SCC. It possesses good mechanical properties and shows excellent resistance to corrosion. The higher resistance to SCC is because of its microstructure, which makes it more difficult for a crack in duplex systems.

Fabrication And Welding

Duplex alloys have low risks of hydrogen cracking, and are more resistant to solidification cracking as compared to austenitic grades. It shows easy welding and machining, enabling welding with relatively high heat input and low interpass temperatures. Welding duplex stainless steel is cheaper and easier, and one can use various welding methods like resistance welding, laser welding, and electron beam welding for forming the desired shape.

Different Forms of Duplex Stainless Steel

Based on the presence of different production methods, there can be four basic duplex forms. Lean Duplex has lower Nickel content, and does not contain molybdenum. It is mainly used in storage tank construction. 2205 duplex stainless steel is regular duplex possessing standard amounts of both nickel and molybdenum and finds wide use in pharmaceutical sector. Super Duplex has higher molybdenum and chromium (24-26%) content, and is used for constructing pipes for oil, gas, and chemical industries. Hyper Duplex contains even higher volumes of molybdenum and chromium (27-32%), and finds use in energy and oil sectors.

Cleaning Duplex Stainless Steel

Different fabrication and welding processes can damage duplex stainless steel pipes which can damage its structure. For protecting the steel surface against formation of rust and other impurities, one needs to clean the steel surface before and after welding. Electrochemical cleaning, manual grinding, chemical pickling are common methods for cleaning the surface and restoring the passivation layer that imparts anti-corrosive properties to the structure. It helps to take care of the common side-effects such as oxidation and heat tinting that occurs during the welding process.

To Conclude:

These are some of the important properties that characterize the duplex stainless steel grade. It is a highly valuable with enhanced properties such as improved weldability, good toughness, and corrosion resistance, which makes it a useful material in different industries.

6 Reasons to Choose Nickel Alloy

Nickel alloys are metals that can be combined with other elements to create durable, high-quality materials. Alloys often combine different types of nickel which act as the base metal and help maintain desirable properties like corrosion resistance. Nickel alloys have many uses, including coins, gas tanks for vehicles, aircraft engines parts, medical devices and more.

Nickel alloy 20 tubing is one kind of stainless steel that’s resistant to high temperature. Nickel iron alloy is used at places where a low rate of thermal expansion is required. Nickel copper alloy is used in marine procedures as it offers corrosion resistance from salty water or seawater. Nickel chromium iron alloy is used to produce alloy that can assist in oxidation together with high-temperature corrosion. Nickel molybdenum alloy provides high chemical resistance from hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and other strong acids.

The Nickle alloys are also known as the ni-based superalloys.This is because of the amazing strength
and resistance this material holds. The chemical substances added to this material are cabalt, tangsten
iron, chromium and molybdenum. There are a lot of reasons for which industries prefer using nickel-based
alloys. Adding nickel to various metals brings changes in the nickel alloy 20 tubing properties after the procedure.

06 Tips To Buy Stainless Steel Pipe

A stainless steel pipe is a great option for industrial settings. It’s durable, long-lasting and rust-resistant – perfect if the environment you’ll be using it intends to have high humidity or water exposure issues. In addition, they are not easily corroded and can withstand high pressures. When choosing an industrial supplier of stainless steel pipes, make sure they have plenty of experience with their product line and are licensed.

If you’re looking to buy stainless steel pipe for industrial settings, it’s important to consider the material used. Always make sure that the material used is corrosion-resistant. The best way to ensure longevity and durability in your piping is by using 304 or 316 aluminum materials that are highly resistant to rusting. In addition, a buyer should consider the price of stainless steel pipe before making any purchases. The price fluctuates greatly, so be mindful and do your research on various prices to find what best suits you.

3 Causes Of Corrosion Of Stainless Steel Tubes

While stainless steel can resist corrosion better than carbon and steel alloys, certain conditions can affect the integrity of the material over time. For example, as it comes in contact with an electrolyte such as water, oxygen, or other metal, it causes a chemical reaction, due to which it can lose electrons and become weak. Hence, it renders the stainless-steel product vulnerable and can succumb to rust, cracks, and holes, due to which it can collapse.

Stainless steel corrosion is of different types. Uniform corrosion spreads evenly across the surface of stainless steel material and causes a uniform metal loss across the entire surface. Pitting corrosion is a form of localized corrosion occurring in a confined area in pits and spots due to exposure to aggressive chemical species like chloride, which can cause oxide breaks on the metal. Finally, crevice corrosion in stainless steel occurs in the microenvironment where there is a difference in ion concentration between two metal areas.

Intergranular corrosion is a form of selective attack in the vicinity of grain boundaries in stainless steel. It can severely affect the mechanical properties of the metal. Tensile stress and a specific corrosive environment can also crack stainless steel and can result in axial cracks in the pipeline. The fine cracks may emerge in the microstructure of the metal, and hence it is hard to spot.

To prevent the metal integrity of your 416 stainless steel tube and other stainless steel grades, you need to protect the metal against these corrosive atmospheres that can critically affect its lifespan.


The chromium content of stainless steel alloys is vulnerable to chlorides. In wet and humid environments that contain chloride ions, it can cause pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion in the stainless steel tubes. Chloride breaks down the passive film on the surface of stainless steel. Corrosion accelerates in an alkaline environment and coastal areas with salt-spray exposure, resulting in the rusting of the metal.


While stainless steel is resistant to acidic corrosion, strong acids can destabilize the passive layer on the stainless steel surface. Intermediate concentrations of sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid can cause surface corrosion. These are strong reducing acids and, when present in higher concentrations, can trigger the degradation of stainless steel.

Iron And Carbon Steel Particles

Iron and carbon steel particles can deposit on the surface steel and damage the oxide layer. At the site of contamination, it can produce localized or pitting corrosion. The rust spots can compromise the chromium oxide surface of the stainless steel tubes. Carbon contamination of stainless steel can occur due to the breakdown of organic materials when exposed to materials from nearby welding, combustion of sooty gas flames, or because of paint, pen, or pencil markings.

To Conclude:

To ensure the longevity of your stainless steel tubes, you need to protect and prevent contact with corrosive substances. Stainless steel requires minimum maintenance, and following the best practices, keep the integrity of the protective covering of stainless steel intact to avoid any form of rusting in various environments.

5 Tips For Cleaning Stainless Steel Tubes

Stainless steel tubes require cleaning at regular intervals for effective maintenance of their integrity.You can educate about the signs of contamination, corrosion, and surface degradation of stainless steel to determine what degree of cleaning and care it requires.To establish the best cleaning criteria, you need to identify the scope and objectives of your cleaning process by carefully inspecting the stainless steel tubes. Accordingly, you need to deploy the best cleaning practices that adhere to the industry standards defined for the custom-built stainless steel tubes.

The surface of stainless steel tubes has a thin layer of chromium oxide which protects the metal from corrosion. The alloy’s chromium content combines with oxygen from the atmosphere to form the passive layer of chromium oxide. Various contaminants can get trapped within the passive film and can severely affect its corrosion resistance properties. Hence, stainless steel products require regular cleaning to prevent corrosion and protect the luster of the surface.

The various types of pipe contamination for 316 stainless steel tubes and other grades are dirt, iron contamination, deposition of oil, paint, grease, and rust. For cleaning stainless steel tubes, you can refer to the following.

Routine Cleaning

To carry out routine cleaning of stainless steel tubes, you can clean them with soap, mild detergent, or ammonia solutions in warm water. You can apply any of these agents with a soft cloth or nylon sponge. After this, you need to rinse and dry it with a soft cloth. It helps to remove ordinary soiling. While cleaning stainless steel, use mild non-scratching abrasive powders, and avoid using standard carbon steel brushes or steel wool. It can leave articles embedded on the surface, which can trigger rusting.

Solvent Cleaning

You can use organic solvents to remove stains that are fresh and have not yet oxidized or decomposed. The solvent should not contain chlorine, like acetone, methyl alcohol, and mineral spirits. You can immerse smaller articles into the solvents or use the vapor cleaning method to control the discharge of solvents. Wipe it post-cleaning.

For Moderate Soiling

You can use a mild abrasive cleaner for moderate soiling and light staining and use a soft cloth, nylon scouring pad, or a soft bristle brush. In the direction of the polished finish, use the material to make long, even strokes. You need to avoid using a circular rubbing action. After you clean it, you need to rinse and dry-wipe to complete the process and remove water stains.

For Heavier Soiling

For more intense staining and heavy soiling, you can use ammonia solution or warm/hot detergents. You can also use acidic cleaners and follow the cleaning procedures mentioned for moderate soiling.

Passivating Treatment

To maximize the corrosion resistance capability of stainless steel and remove surface contaminants, you can use the passivation treatment. First, you need to clean the stainless steel surface thoroughly and remove the pollutants. After this, you need to enter the metal in a passivating acid bath. Depending on the chromium content and the machinability properties of the stainless steel grade, the nature of the passivation treatment will vary.

To Conclude:

While selecting the cleaning practices for stainless steel tubes, you need to carefully analyze the potential of the cleaning agent to counter the contamination or corrosion. Proper routine care can extend the lifespan of stainless steel.

4 Things You Should Know About Hastelloy C276

Hastelloy C276 is a nickel-molybdenum- chromium wrought alloy with a small amount of tungsten. It is widely used in the chemical process and associated industries. It is available in various commercial markets, such as plates, sheets, strips, wires, pipes, tubes, and covered electrodes.

Hastelloy C276 offers reliable performance, making it suitable for geothermal, solar energy, oil and gas, and pharmaceutical industries. Hastelloy C276 tubing shows high resistance to many aggressive chemicals. As it has high chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten content, the alloy conveys exceptional resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in reducing environments. The chromium content allows it to show resistance to oxidizing media. It is considered the most versatile corrosion-resistant alloy available. Hastelloy C276 can withstand the corrosive effects of wet chlorine gas, hypochlorite, and chlorine dioxide.

Here are a few essential features, characteristics, and applications of Hastelloy C276-


Hastelloy C276 is used in reactors, heat exchangers, and columns in the chemical process industry (CPI). The superalloy is well suited to many industrial processes. It is also used in the petrochemical, oil and gas, and pharmaceutical industries. It is used to recover “sour” natural gas and for the desulphurization of flue gas equipment. Hastelloy C276 also finds use in pollution control, pulp and paper production, water desalination, and municipal waste treatment plants.


The nickel-chromium-molybdenum content in the superalloy alleviates concern over the welding. Hastelloy C276 can be welded easily by the commonly used welding methods. It is malleable, easy to form and weld. In the welding process, you need to avoid excessive heat input. You can use the superalloy in “as-welded” conditions for corrosive applications without applying any more heat treatment.

Resistance Properties

Hastelloy C276 shows resistance to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking. It also offers resistance to seawater crevice corrosion. Hastelloy C-276 alloy exhibits high resistance to chloride-induced pitting and crevice attack. It also has excellent resistance to critical inorganic acids, even in its welded form. The chromium-molybdenum content allows it to show opposition to both oxidizing and non-oxidizing acids. It can also resist robust solutions of oxidizing salts, such as ferric and cupric chlorides.

Heat Treatment

The wrought forms of the superalloy are generally furnished in the heat-treated condition. Annealing for Hastelloy C276 is done at a temperature between 2050°F and 2150°F. The alloy can be hot forged, hot rolled, hot upset, hot extruded, and hot-formed. For hot forming, the specified temperature range is 1600 and 2250°F, and heavy forming at a temperature above 2000°F. The cold-worked parts should be re-annealed to optimize their corrosion resistance properties. The superalloy uses conventional cold working procedures for hard-working purposes. It can be cold-formed using deep drawing, press forming, and punching.

To Conclude:

Hastelloy C276 is a versatile material, and its strong resistance properties render it useful in many industries. It shows excellent corrosion resistance in reducing environments and aggressive media, good machinability, fabrication, and weldability, making it suitable for varied uses.