6 Reasons to Use Nickel Alloy 800h Tubing for Commercial Purposes

The world did not wake up to the value of Nickel just the other day. Since pre-civilization times, people used Nickel to make artifacts such as weapons and tools, and even coins. Even today, Nickel alloys have become a must-have, and the trend will not be slowing down any time in the future.

The beauty of Nickel is that it can alloy with just about a wide variety of metals such as copper, chromium, and iron, making its use very versatile

Nickel Alloys Used in a Variety of Applications

Nickel alloys are highly useful in a variety of heat and corrosion-resistant applications. These include medical and nuclear power applications, turbines for aircraft gas and steam power plants, and chemical and petroleum industries.

One of the most common Nickel alloys used for commercial purposes is the Nickel alloy 800h tubing.

Properties of the Nickel Alloy 800h Tubing

Nickel Alloy 800h is a combination of Nickel, iron, and Chromium, with the highest concentration being that of Nickel. It also contains very high carbon levels.

Alloy 800h tubing has found its uses in a variety of industries which use heavy-duty equipment such as chemical and oil refineries, plant heaters, pressure vessels, industrial furnaces, and hydrocarbon cracking.

Below are its top properties

  1. Optimum temperature features

While the previous alloy 800 was only used for temperatures up to 1100 degrees F, the 800h alloy can be used in higher temperatures higher than that. Even in extremely high temperatures, the Nickel alloy maintains its stable structure.

  1. Resistant to embrittlement

The high nickel composition makes it highly resistant to embrittlement. That means that it can be hammered or stretched without breaking. Alloy 800h is preferred to stainless steel because it can withstand temperatures as high 1600 degrees F without becoming embrittled.

  1. Resistant to carburization

Carburization is the hardening due to a high carbon infusion during heating. Alloy 800h has an excellent chemical composition to resist carburization.

  1. Corrosion resistance

Nickel 800h exhibits strong properties when it comes to oxidation, sulfiding, and nitriding resistance. Nickel alloys tend to be more resistant than steel.

  1. Ability to overcome stress rapture

The Alloy 800h is a slight modification from the previous Nickel Alloy 800. Different from alloy 800, alloy 800h has a higher carbon content and grain size which makes it a suitable metal in conditions likely to cause high-stress rapture.

  1. Easily weldable

Just like stainless steel, Nickel alloys are weldable with similar techniques used to weld steel. Even more, it is easily machinable and formable.

Final Words

Metals can fail at extremely high temperatures or in maximal environmental conditions of excess moisture or acidity. When you are especially working in a commercial environment, you need to use quality metals that can withstand environmental conditions without damaging their structure.

Nickel 800h alloy is such a metal which has found extensive applications in places where high heat and corrosion resistance is required. Whether you are in the aerospace, chemical and food processing, or even the oil and gas industries, Nickel alloy tubing has all the properties required for a highly functional and durable metal.

Common Mistakes Fabricators Make When Welding 718 Tubing

Nickel alloy 718 tubing is one of many alloys with great properties that can make it applicable in many environments where heat will be involved. It is commonly used in offshore oil mining because of its corrosion resistance. One challenge new fabricators have when dealing with it however is welding.

Welders who have not worked with stainless steel before can make a few mistakes when working with nickel alloy 718 tubing. We have compiled some of the common mistakes made.

Using the Wrong Tools

It may be a surprise to some metalworkers that what they consider the right tools when working with carbon steel are the wrong tools when it comes to stainless steel. The thing about stainless steel is that it can be contaminated when you use the same tools for carbon steel. Particles from the ordinary steel can be introduced to the tubing and when you finally apply it, you realize it begins corroding prematurely.

Applying too Much Heat

Yes, alloys can withstand high temperatures, but at the same time, they have different levels at which they begin to get deformed. Some welders may simply believe because they used a particular amount of heat on one metal, they can do the same for another. This is a big mistake to make when dealing with stainless steel and it can result in the steel getting deformed in the process. The worst result of applying too much heat is depletion of the chromium layer which is essential for corrosion resistance. If this happens the steel will eventually lose its most favorable quality.

Using the Wrong Filler Metal

Stainless steel has different grades and because of that, the filler metal used to weld one grade may not work on another. Some welders do not take the time to find out what grade they are working on and because of that, they use the wrong filler which ends up in a waste of material as well as a poorly done job. It is important to always establish what grade of stainless steel you are working on and what would be the best approach.

Using the Wrong Amount of Shielding Gas

This is a mistake that can go unnoticed as the steel fabrication leaves the workshop because it may look just fine. This deception is why this mistake is made over and over until the clients start complaining. The mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide used when welding carbon steel is not appropriate for stainless steel. Too much of it and you will have a fabrication that will corrode in just a few weeks. It may not look like you have made a mistake but this is just as bad as using too much heat.

Protection

This is a general mistake when welding. Some welders may forget or ignore safety guidelines when welding and that can result in an accident.

Conclusion

Before you begin welding stainless steel, ensure that you know what grade you are working with and what is the best approach to working on it. Never try to apply the same procedure used for carbon steel to stainless steel. It takes a bit of adjustment to get used to working with stainless steel but with practice, you can become perfect.

How to Weld Nickel Alloy 800H Tubing?

Some of the great properties of nickel alloy 800H tubing that make it appropriate for certain uses can also make it hard to deal with. One of the problems you may encounter is welding. Because of its ability to withstand high temperatures, it may be hard to weld.

If care is not taken as you weld nickel alloy 800H tubing you may end up with a few defects which include crevices, surface oxides that result in corrosion, arc strikes, and removal of protective film on the metal among other problems, these can be prevented by using the right procedure.

Qualification and Training

Whoever is working as a welder for nickel alloys must have the right qualification and training. Each country may have its own certification standards that would qualify someone to work safely and effectively on this kind of metal.

Training will cover the different methods used to weld alloys as well as preparation for welding among other important information concerning welding and fabrication. At the end of the training, the individual will have to pass a test to qualify as a welder.

Methods Used to Weld Nickel Alloys

There are mainly 3 methods commonly used to weld nickel alloys, these are:

– Gas tungsten arc

– Shield metal arc

– Gas metal arc

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

This is a commonly used procedure for welding nickel alloys. Agon gas or any inert gas is used to protect the metal from the air, meanwhile, the filler metal is added into the arc. This can be done automatically or manually. The thickness of the metal doesn’t matter in this process. The advantages of GTAW include:

– It is effective when welding pipes.

– Slug residue is minimized so clean up after welding is not much.

– It does not cause alloy loss.

– It is neat with minimal or no finishing needed.

Shield Metal Arc Welding

SMAW is appropriate when dealing with shapes that cannot be welded automatically. The entire process is manual as the welder constantly controls the arc. Because of the versatility when using this technique, there are many ways to perform it depending on the type of nickel alloy being used. Care needs to be taken when welding and it is best to have a helper as you do this.

Gas Metal Arc Welding

With this technique, an arc is created between the piece, bare wire electrode, and consumable. A gas shield is then used to protect from external air. Either helium or argon can be used and at times a combination of the 2 can work as well. Carbon dioxide can also be added for bead control. Advantages of this process are:

– Automation is easily achieved.

– Welding can be done faster.

– There is a proper transfer of elements between the arc.

– Produces no slug so there is no cleanup needed.

Conclusion

Because nickel alloys are used often in applications that require error-free performance, it is important that the people who execute the welding know exactly what they are doing. It is best not to try and fiddle with it on your own if you haven’t received the right training to carry out the task. At the same time, ensure that you have the right nickel alloy.

5 Common Industrial Applications of Nickel Alloy 825 Tubing

Nickel alloy 825 tubing has a very high nickel content which makes it appropriate for use in highly corrosive applications. There are many industries that will also use it for other applications that may not be related to corrosion for example it can be hot or cold worked easily. The presence of titanium in the alloy provides protection from pitting after fabrication. Here are some of the common uses.

Air Cooled Heat Exchangers

Nickel alloy 825 tubing is used to transport heated liquids from a hot environment to a cooler environment where they will get cooled. Because of the property of the alloy, it can withstand not just the heat, but also the corrosive effect of heated chemicals. Petrochemical plants as well as power plants are among the common industries that use 825 for air-cooled heat exchangers. The process of cooling is critical to the working of the plant so care has to be taken to use the right material for the exchangers. Because of the alloy’s resistance to corrosion, it is also used in seawater cooled heat exchangers which use the same principle as air-cooled exchangers only that seawater works in place of air.

Offshore Piping Systems

Some different solutions and chemicals may need to be transported through a corrosion-resistant pipe system. The 825 alloy provides corrosion resistance both inside and outside. This means chemicals and waste can be safely transported through these pipes. And they can also be heated to a particular temperature without worrying about the effects of pressure or heat on the material. The application of 825 tubing includes the following:

– Downhole pipes used in waste injection

– Well casing for oil and gas

– Transmission lines

– Platform piping

Radio Active Waste Handling

Radioactive waste needs to be piped from one end to another and the tubes used need to be safe. This means the chemical makeup of radioactive waste should have no effect on the tubes. 825 alloy is a safe material to use and it is durable as well so once installed, it can last fairly long. The same material can be used for making parts of the nuclear handling plant, like storage tanks as well as joints for the pipes.

Acid Production

Just like with radioactive waste, the material used to transport acid has to be corrosion resistant. This alloy is commonly recommended in the transportation of acid within the production plant. It has a high resistance to corrosion whether the acid is heated or cooled.

Pulp Digester

Pulp digesters need to be made from solid steel and that is exactly what 825 is. It can be used to cook the different ingredients needed to make paper. The pulping process involves using raw material of different acid and alkaline content so the material used for the tank has to withstand the chemical reactions that go on in that process. 825 provides a reliable stainless steel material and it is also easy to fabricate to the required design.

825 alloy is a versatile alloy that can be used in several industrial applications. The oil and gas as well as chemical industries utilize this the most.

Features of Hastelloy C276 Tubing That Make it Versatile

Hastelloy C276 tubing possesses features that make it versatile for use in different industries. Made from nickel, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and cobalt among other metals, this alloy’s features are just as versatile as the metals that make it up. Corrosion resistance is among the top features that make this alloy appropriate for different applications. Here are the features of C276.

Corrosion Resistance

Hastelloy C276 tubing is referred to as universally resistant to corrosion. This is because it can withstand various environments. Whether it is a moderately oxidizing environment or a strong reducing one, the alloy will remain unchanged. Many alloys are resistant to just a few acids, but this one can resist hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, sulphuric acid, formic acid as well as chlorine solutions, and chlorine gas. It only proves vulnerable when exposed to hot concentrated nitric acid. This is because it has a low composition of chromium. When introduced to seawater, the alloy still proves resistant to corrosion. This makes it appropriate for applications that would involve submersion in seawater.

Easy Fabrication

With the right directions followed, this alloy can be easily formed with different hot and cold working processes. Its nickel composition makes it harden quickly yet it can be aggressively cold-formed using methods such as punching, deep drawing, and press forming. It is recommended that hot forming is done between 870°C and 1230°C while heavier sections need to be heated to a minimum of 1093°C. it is advised, however, that annealing be carried out after the material has been worked. The recommended temperature for this would be between 2050 and 2150°F. Fabrication of this metal is much easier than so many others with fewer risks involved.

Impressive Weldability

Of all the nickel alloys that contain molybdenum, C270 alloy has one of the best weldability features. Whether it is used as a filler or it is welded using other metals, it forms a corrosion-resistant area. Unlike any other alloys which become vulnerable after welding, this one does not. As long as you follow the directions for welding, there should be no risk of cracks forming. This is because it has low carbon content and thus reduces the grain boundary carbide precipitation

Stress Corrosion Resistance

Nickel alloys have a level of resistance to stress corrosion, however, if the condition exceeds a certain level, they begin cracking. This is not the case with C270. The alloy when put to the test shows no signs of cracking.

Applications

With the properties mentioned above, Hastelloy is appropriate for use in the following applications:

– Industries that deal with highly acidic solutions like chemical waste treatment plants as well as pharmaceutical manufacturing.

– Offshore oil mining that need to feed pipes deep into salty water. The material can be used for pipes as well as fittings, bolts, and other accessories.

– Construction engineering especially for structures that will be near highly corrosive environments.

– Industries that have processes that involve high temperatures like in heat exchangers, evaporators, and stack gas reheaters.

Versatility is not a property many alloys posses since most are created for specific purposes. C276 however can be used in various applications.

How Do Hastelloy C276 and Chemical Processing Relate?

How Do Hastelloy C276 and Chemical Processing Relate?

How Do Hastelloy C276 and Chemical Processing Relate?

Chemical processing is a process in which chemicals and compounds are transformed through chemical reactions. The chemical reaction and processing involve the use of equipment like pumps, heat exchangers, evaporators, valves, pressure vessels, fittings, and flanges. The solutions and chemicals used to initiate the reactions trigger extreme conditions, hence the need to use the Hastelloy C276 pipe.

The Hastelloy C-276 is a nickel alloy, and it is known for its amazing corrosion-resistant properties. The common solutions used during the chemical process like hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric, acetic and phosphoric acids alongside hydrofluoric compounds are very prevalent. And that’s where the corrosion-resistant properties of Hastelloy C276 pipe come in. The best thing about it is that it doesn’t allow the creation of grain boundary precipitates within the weld heat-affected zones, which makes it ideal for the equipment used in chemical fabrication and processing.

What Are the Hastelloy C276 Properties?

The Hastelloy C276 has outstanding properties, and that tells why it’s the preferred choice in the chemical processing industry.

  • All plates, sheets, and pipes made of Hastelloy C 276 showcase strong resistance to acetic anhydride, cupric and ferric chlorides, brine solutions, seawater, and hot and contaminated mineral acids
  • This nickel-based alloy is super resistant to chlorine dioxide solutions, hypochlorite, and wet chlorine gas
  • The alloy is suitable for oxidizing atmospheres to temperatures of up to 1900 degrees Fahrenheit. Itis also effective in the prevention of detrimental effects of general corrosion, cracking, crevice, and pitting
  • Since it has amazing corrosion resistance properties, itis the preferred choice in reaction vessels, transfer piping, evaporators, and heat exchangers. The structural quality of the alloy to resist harsh chemical processing conditions alongside the strength of resisting high temperatures from general corrosion, pitting, crevice, and pitting, make it the ideal choice for use in the equipment used in chemical process industries
  • The alloy can easily be processed and welded using standard shop fabrication procedures.  Besides, the alloy can be cold and hot-formed easily besides being welded using the standard procedures
  • Also, the alloy works to protect machines when kept in annealed conditions since heat treatment won’t harden it
  • The alloy is superbly resistant to corrosion and other harsh conditions, which makes it a superior choice for chemical processing

Why is C276 Used in Chemical Processing?

Wondering why most chemical processing industries use Hastelloy C276? These are the main reasons these industries have chosen it as the main material for ensuring efficiency:

  • The material has strong, resistant qualities against non-oxidizing and oxidizing acids owing to the high content of chromium and molybdenum
  • Hastelloy C276 exhibits strong resistance properties against stress corrosion cracking and sulfide stress cracking, which occurs naturally from the sour oilfield atmosphere
  • These alloys are easy to form and welds super-fast
  • The alloy is very ductile and has strong, resistant properties to chloride solutions. It also resists stress corrosion cracking

You can order these pipes from a reliable supplier online who offers them at affordable prices.

Steel Tubes

4 Vital Applications Of Stainless Steel Tubes

Steel Tubes

When thinking of pipes, have you ever faced a head-scratching moment when thinking about safety, durability, and strength? Well, there are several solutions to that. One of them is using a 321 stainless steel tube.

By itself, stainless steel is not a naturally occurring metal. It is an alloy of chromium and iron as the main element. Chromium plays a vital role in reducing corrosion.

Increasing the percentage of chromium translates to increased resistance to corrosion. Other elements that are included in the alloy are molybdenum, nickel, manganese, silicon, and carbon. It is vital noting that these elements are added in varying proportions depending on the desired end product.

Applications

Stainless steel tubes are not restricted to round shapes. They can be oval, flat, and even rectangular-shaped and It all depends on the intended use. However, it is imperative noting that tubes are usually available in varying grades such as the 321 stainless steel tube. The following are some of the applications of stainless steel tubes.

  1. The auto industry

Ever came across a rumbling car? If you have, chances are the muffler was made out of a stainless steel tube. Car mufflers are in most cases located under the vehicles, and this makes them vulnerable to the elements. Corrosion occurs when oxygen reacts with metals to form an oxide.

If wrong metal materials are used, corrosion can prove to be an expensive affair if car exhaust systems are anything to go by.

  1. Production lines

Since the invention of the production line, more products can get to the consumers within a record time. However, it is imperative having in mind that improper handling of some products during manufacturing can result in some illnesses or the goods going bad.

To write-off the possibilities of such eventualities, some safety measures must be met. Milk, water, soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, and other liquids need handling with maximum safety in mind. And one of the best ways of achieving that is by using stainless steel tubes when transferring fluids between vessels.

  1. Gas lines

Since its discovery, the domestic or cooking gas has proved to be a valuable commodity over the years. Whether at home or in a commercial kitchen, you don’t want to take chances when handling this commodity. The most suitable method of getting it to your burner(s) is through stainless steel piping.

Why preferably stainless steel over other metals? Over time other metal may be susceptible to corrosion which can prove costly and sometimes undetectable if the corrosion occurs from the inside.

  1. Construction

Stainless steel tubes are also used in construction. Their strength can be instrumental when considering a building’s stability. It is also vital noting that using piping with a low resistance to corrosion in buildings can prove costly when doing repairs

Stainless steel tubes offer the best resistance to corrosion and especially from inside the pipes.

Summary

The applications of stainless steel tubing are vast. From the uses mentioned above, three things are evident. They keep corrosion away, maintain safety, and don’t subject you to losses. They come in various specifications, and one such example is the 321 stainless steel tube.

Nickel

All You Need to Know about Nickel

Nickel

This is a hard and shiny metal with a number of applications for our daily life. You can find it in batteries as well as stainless steel used in making surgical tools and as nickel alloy 20 tubing.

Characteristics of Nickel

  • It is a strong metal that can react with oxygen
  • It combines with iron to achieve its stable property
  • Nickel alloy 20 tubing is corrosion resistant and can be used to strengthen other metals
  • It is easy to shape into different shapes like cylindrical tubes, wire, and rods

Although nickel is said to be one of the most abundant metals, it is not easily found on the surface of the earth.

Extraction and Production of Nickel

Nickel mining is done in 23 countries around the globe. Its extraction is done from sulfides that contain about 1 percent nickel.

The mining of nickel sulfides can be highly labor-intensive since the ores need to be mined from very deep into the earth’s surface. This also makes the process expensive and eventually affects the price of nickel. The mining process may vary according to the area where it is done, for example, the sulfides mined in Canada are more expensive to mine than those in Siberia.

To extract nickel, impurities are removed from the sulfides, but usually, these impurities will contain other valuable minerals.

The production process will involve different stages which may include smelting, the addition of chemicals that can separate the ores, magnetization as well as drying in a furnace.

Usage

There are several ways in which nickel is put to use, but the most common would be in the making of batteries as well as creating alloys like stainless steel. Around the world, nickel is utilized in over 300,000 ways.

The making of stainless steel accounts for over 60% of the use of nickel. There are different types of stainless steel including some that are magnetic as well as non-magnetic steel.

Nickel can be combined with other metals to make strong alloys like the 300 series which are highly corrosion resistant. Different alloys are made using nickel and the way they are made is determined by what they are intended to be used for. The amount of nickel used in making the alloy also varies depending on how resistant to corrosion it is supposed to be.

History of Nickel

Ancient Chinese documents from the 1500s indicate that they were mining nickel already. At that time they referred to it as white copper which was probably because of its combination with silver. Later on in 1751, Alex Fredrich is recorded to have extracted the first pure nickel.

There are also reports of extracting copper from nickel in Germany where they referred to it as “the devil’s copper” since it contained the poisonous compound arsenic.

It was not until 1889 when nickel was presented as a metal that can be used to strengthen ordinary metals. This raised demand for it and after world war II there was an even higher demand for nickel which is now mined on a large scale and used in different applications.

Stainless Steel

Quick Guide: Types of Elements Found in Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel

Stainless steel is a type of metal alloy found in a number of forms. It is used to make light wall stainless steel tubing as well as pipes and several other things. It is a practical metal as it does not corrode with chemicals nor rust which causes most of the metallic things we use to get made of stainless steel. Components found in stainless steel include molybdenum, nickel, carbon, chromium, iron and quantities of different other metals. Continue reading “Quick Guide: Types of Elements Found in Stainless Steel”