How to Choose the Best Hastelloy C276 Tubing

Hastelloy C276 is a superalloy having a precise nickel, molybdenum, and chromium composition. Additionally, there is a trace of tungsten, which provides an exceptional kind of corrosion resistance. It also allows Hastelloy C276 to function smoothly in harsh settings. The tubes are of high quality and can be used in a variety of applications. They are particularly beneficial in pollution control units, chemical processing plants, paper, pulp mills, and various other applications. With so many different qualities available these days, it’s difficult to find the best one, especially when you are new in the industry. So, let us know how to buy Hastelloy C276 tubing online.

Three Things to Know About 304 Stainless Steel

Grade 304 stainless steel belongs to the austenitic stainless steel family. It contains high nickel content that ranges between 8 and 10.5% by weight. The chromium content of 304 stainless steel lies between 18 to 20% by weight. Besides these elements, it also includes other alloying elements such as carbon, manganese, and silicon. The remaining chemical composition mainly comprises iron. Grade 304 is the standard “18/8” stainless and is defined as a Chromium-Nickel austenitic alloy.

Grade 304 (UNS S30400) is referred to in ASTM A240 as 304-grade steel. It is available in various forms such as steel, strip, quarto plate, tube, bar, fittings and flanges, plate, and pipe. The lower carbon content in grade 304 brings down the risk of carbide precipitation, which occurs in alloys containing a higher percentage of carbon. The chromium and nickel content gives 304 stainless steel tube excellent corrosion resistance, making them applicable across a wide range of industries.

Difference between 304, 304H, and 304L

According to Cr-Ni content, Grade 304 stainless steel has the following variants:

  • 304,
  • 304H, and
  • 304L

While these variants have 18% chromium and 8% Nickel, the significant difference lies in their carbon content.

  • 304L: The “L” in 304L may imply the extra-low carbon content, amounting to 0.03% or less. It helps in effectively preventing intergranular corrosion. The ultra-low carbon content increases its stress corrosion resistance.
  • 304H: The H in 304H indicates a high temperature. Its higher carbon content renders it usable at high temperatures. It should not have a carbon composition lesser than 0.04%. Since you can use it at high temperatures, it makes it better than pure austenite.
  • 304: Its carbon content lies between 304L and 304H. The increase in carbon content decreases its corrosion resistance ability.

It is suitable for manufacturing deep-drawn parts and acid pipelines, structural parts, containers, different instrument bodies, and more.

Applications of 304 Stainless Steel

304 stainless steels have a wide range of domestic and commercial applications. It is generally used in:

  • Cutlery and flatware
  • Sinks and splashbacks
  • Saucepans
  • Sanitaryware and troughs
  • Architectural paneling
  • Brewery, dairy, food, and pharmaceutical production equipment
  • Tubing
  • Springs, nuts, bolts, and screws
  • Architectural paneling, railings & trim
  • Heat Exchangers
  • Chemical containers, including for transport
  • Dyeing industry
  • Woven or welded screens for mining, quarrying, and water filtration

Advantages of Grade 304 Stainless Steel

  • The Cr-Ni content in Grade 304 enables it to resist intergranular corrosion. Its high corrosion resistance and value make it a popular choice.
  • It has an impressive hot and cold forming process. It is helpful in processing board and producing tube, wires, tape, and other products.
  • Grade 304 stainless steel shows good weldability. You can readily weld the allows using any given arc welding processes (such as TIG, MIG, MMA, and SA). It can get welded into a precise structure with specific properties and characteristics.
  • It is highly durable and easy to sanitize, making it ideal for kitchen and food applications.
  • It shows better performance at lower temperatures. At -180 ℃condition, Grade 340 has good strength, elongation, and area reduction rate.

To Conclude:

These are a few essential things you should know about grade 304 stainless steel. It is austenitic stainless steel that has various applications and an extensive application volume.

Four Things to Know About 316 Stainless Steel

Grade 316 is a popular stainless steel alloy belonging to the austenitic family. It is known for its 2-3% molybdenum content, making the alloy resistant to pitting and corrosion. It also improves its corrosion resistance on exposure to elevated temperatures. Type 316 is marine-grade stainless steel, and the presence of molybdenum makes it suitable for more saline or chloride-exposed environments.

316 stainless steel has various industrial applications that involve processing chemicals and high-saline environments like coastal areas and environments where de-icing salts are common. The non-reactive properties of Grade 316 also render it valuable in the manufacture of medical surgical equipment to avoid excessive metallic contamination. 316 stainless steel tube is an austenitic chromium-nickel stainless similar to type 304, and the significant difference lies in its Mo content. Grade 316 is durable, easy to fabricate, weld, clean, and finish.

Difference between 316 and 316L

Stainless Steel 316 (S31600) consists of 2 to 3% molybdenum by weight, improving its corrosion resistance. It can resist pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. It has high creep strength and higher corrosion resistance than 302 and 304.

Stainless Steel 316L (S31603) has lower carbon content than stainless steel 316. It is highly immune to grain boundary carbide precipitation (or sensitization). It requires extensive welding. It is highly suitable for use in heavy gauge welded components.

Physical Properties of 316 and 316L Steels

  • Density: 0.799g/cubic centimeter
  • Melting Range: 2,500–2,550° Fahrenheit (1,371–1,399° Celsius)
  • Electrical resistivity: 74 microhm-centimeters (20° Celsius)
  • Thermal conductivity: 16.2 Watts/meter-Kelvin (100° Celsius)
  • Specific Heat: 0.50 kiloJoules/kilogram-Kelvin (0–100° Celsius)
  • Modulus of Elasticity (MPa): 193 x 103 in tension

Common uses for 316 stainless steels

  • Marine equipment
  • Industrial equipment, including pharmaceutical manufacturing and chemical manufacturing
  • Cisterns and pipes for chemical applications
  • Medical equipment
  • Industrial and chemical transportation
  • Pressure vessels
  • Commercial kitchens
  • Outdoor site furnishings
  • Commercial appliances
  • Food production and processing in saline environments

Benefits of Grade 316 Stainless Steel

Lasting Durability

Grade 316 offers high strength and versatility, making it suitable for long-lasting custom wire baskets. The durable baskets can survive constant exposure to high-impact processes.

Marine Applications

Seawater and salt air can damage metals. The presence of chlorides, like salt, can eat away even the most rigid metals. Salt also affects the protective oxide layer of stainless steel, making them rust. Grade 316 is ideal for marine applications or processes that involve chlorides. It also shows resistance to salt and chloride pitting. It is suitable for naval applications.

Corrosion Resistance

The molybdenum content in grade 316 stainless steel renders it more corrosion resistant than similar alloys. Molybdenum helps reduce pitting from chemical environments, making it suitable for use in highly acidic and caustic environments. Grade 316 can withstand caustic solutions and corrosive applications. It is also ideal for pharmaceutical and medical applications. Grade 316 can prevent rust in different corrosive environments or media. It is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking above 60°C.

To Conclude:

You should know a few essential things about grade 316 of austenitic stainless steel. The presence of chromium and nickel and a bit of molybdenum in the mix makes it a precious alloy with excellent corrosion resistance, pitting resistance, and machinability. These properties have highly improved their commercial importance.

Advantages of Using Nickel Alloy 600 Tubing

Nickel Alloy 600, also called as Inconel® 600, is nickel-based. It’s a one-of-a-kind nickel-chromium alloy that’s known for its high-temperature oxidation resistance. It has a variety of uses, from cryogenics to applications with extreme temperatures of up to 2000°F (1093°C). Nickel Alloy 600 tubing has  high nickel concentration (at least 72%), along with its chromium content, gives a variety of advantages to consumers, including:

A Guide To 4130 Steel: Properties, Composition, And Uses

4130 is an alloy steel containing chromium and molybdenum. It is popularly known as Chromoly in the commercial market. Typically, the composition includes 0.8 to 1.1% chromium and 0.15 to 0.25% molybdenum with both functioning as strengthening agents. It is considered low-carbon steel.  It is exceptional welding steel, which you can weld by most common methods, and machine it at normalized or tempered conditions.

The exact chemical breakdown of 4130 tubing with its specific tolerances include:

  • 28 – 0.33% Carbon
  • 15 – 0.25% Molybdenum
  • 7 – 0.9% Manganese
  • 8 – 1.1% Chromium
  • ≤ 0.035% Phosphorus
  • 15 – 0.35% Silicon
  • ≤ 0.04% Sulphur

Why CR And Mo?

Molybdenum has been long-used as a standard alloying element for producing creep-resistant steel that can withstand temperatures of up to 530 °C. When used in high temperatures, it can coagulate and coarsen carbides. Molybdenum is also known to increase the corrosion resistance of 4130 steel. The metallurgical effects of Mo and its ability to work at higher working temperatures with added strength make it highly valuable.

But, continually increasing Mo content can lead to a decrease in creep ductility. Moreover, graphitization takes place above 500 °C, which can cause a drawback in Mo-based steels. However, combining Molybdenum with Chromium helps to yield a valuable solution. Chromium results in exceptional oxidation enable the steel to resist corrosion effectively. It gives the steel good and uniform hardness penetration. The combined benefits of Cr and Mo make Chromoly useful across a wide range of applications.

Properties of 4130 Steel

  • Any known commercial methods can be performed to weld AISI 4130 steel.
  • You can heat treatment of AISI 4130 at 871°C (1600°F) and then quench it in oil. 4130 steel can be heat-treated at temperatures that range from 899 to 927°C (1650 to 1700°F).
  • Hot-working of AISI 4130 steel is done at 816 to 1093°C (1500 to 2000°F).
  • One can forge AISI 4130 steel at 954 to 1204°C (1750 to 2200°F).
  • Using conventional methods, 4130 steel can be cold worked.
  • You can annealit at 843°C (1550°F), and then subject it to air cooling at 482°C (900°F).
  • Based on the desired strength level, the tempering process can be performed at 399 to 566°C (750 to 1050°F).
  • Using heat treatment or cold working, you can harden AISI 4130 steel.

Why is it called 4130 Steel?

4130 steel acquires its name from specific rules outlined by the AISI and SAE. The first digit designates the steel’s class and its major alloying component (s). The second digit indicated the relative percentage of the given alloying element and any other critical secondary elements within the alloy. The last two numbers identify the carbon concentration in 0.01% increments. 4130 chromium-molybdenum steel is part of the 4xxx and 41xx series.

Uses of Chromoly

In 4130 stainless steel, the added tensile strength and extra corrosion resistance make it suitable for use in an environment with elevated temperature levels. Hence, it is ideal for equipment that operates under high temperatures. It is widely used in automotive, bicycle, and heavy equipment parts. Various industries such as the oil and gas industry, metal production and forming equipment, and others use it to optimize strength and durability. It is also used in manufacturing molds, pins, bicycle tubing, furnace equipment, crankshafts, chain links, drill collars, machine shafts, conveyors, tie rods, and miscellaneous tooling.

To Conclude:

These are a few essential properties, compositions, and applications of 4130 steel. The alloy is suitable for high pressure and temperature use and hence is a material of choice for various applications.

Three Things to Know About Stainless Steel

Stainless steel is a term that encompasses a group of iron-based alloys containing at least 10.5% chromium by mass. Besides this, the alloy must also have a maximum of 1.2% carbon to be considered stainless. It may also contain elements in requisite amounts such as nickel, manganese, silicon, nitrogen, titanium, molybdenum, niobium, and others which ascribes valuable properties to the alloy. The addition of chromium provides the alloy with its rust-resistant quality. It forms a protective film on the surface, enabling it to prevent corrosion.

The potential uses of stainless steel are endless. It is used across a wide range of industries. Stainless steel is used extensively from the automotive industry to the architectural, medical and pharmaceutical, kitchen, food, and beverage industries. Its valuable properties such as corrosion resistance, durability, temperature resistance, high tensile strength, low maintenance, eco-friendliness, and attractive appearance contribute to its popularity.

Why Stainless Steel Has Various Grades?

In the stainless-steel smelting process, the varying alloy elements present in different quantities will contribute to the performance of this grade of steel. There are various types of stainless-steel grades based on the composition of the alloy. There are five major family groups: austenitic, martensitic, ferritic, duplex, and precipitation hardening stainless steel. Each family group is further classified by grade. 321 stainless steel tube belongs to the 300 series austenitic stainless steel, made of iron, chromium, and nickel. 321 stainless is a titanium stabilized grade that provides excellent intergranular corrosion resistance. The addition of titanium helps to stabilize it against chromium carbide formation.

Gauges

Besides different grades, stainless steel also comes in varying gauges. Gauges refer to the thickness of the stainless steel metal. The higher the gauge number, the lesser will be the thickness of the material. Hence, metals with higher gauge numbers will be more-thin and vice versa. Choosing the stainless steel product of the correct gauge is crucial to a successful design. For different applications, the gauge of the metal will differ. Making the right choice is essential to ensure the durability of the material. It will also help you avoid structural problems and deformation.

Finishes

The finish of stainless steel tends to vary from one product to another. Based on the intended use, selecting the right finish option is essential. In projects which emphasize design, an attractive finish is crucial for appeal. In retail products, especially kitchen appliances, stainless steel No. 4 finish is popular in the marketplace. Three more commonly used stainless steel finishing options include:

  • 2B – Matte finish: It is a cold-rolled finish, which gives the surface a matte and a slightly reflective appearance. It is generally used for products in which appearance is not crucial.
  • 4 – Brushed finish: It has a visible grain and slight reflection. It is suitable for use in architectural, medical, and kitchen applications.
  • 8 – Mirror finish: Polishing with high abrasives results in a highly polished, mirror-like surface. It has no visible grain and is applicable in cosmetic products.

The right finish will determine the stainless steel surface’s grain, smoothness, shininess, and appearance.

To Conclude:

Various aspects ranging from composition to gauge and surface finishes define the properties of stainless steel. Defining these aspects will help to yield a suitable product for end-use in your industry.

Benefits of Purchasing 4130 Tubing for Your Business

Planning to purchase steel tubes for your business but not sure which is the right choice? Well, 4130 steel tubes are considered one of the best in the industry, especially in aircraft manufacturing. Before you buy 4130 tubing for your business, let us have a look at its benefits.

Steel alloys are generally classified by number according to their composition and tensile strength. The 4130 steel tubes are cold-drawn and standardized with an elasticity of somewhere between 85,000 and 110,000 psi. So it’s extended at room temperature to the ideal strength and thickness inside the reach at which the grade 4130 is applied.

Top Benefits of Using 321 Stainless Steel Tube You Didn’t Know

With the addition of tungsten, alloy C-276 is one of the best corrosion-resistant materials available. It’s excellent resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion make it one for all environments: chemical process industries; oil & gas production sectors in harsh conditions such as offshore platforms where there’s constant exposure to saltwater or onshore fields dealing with extreme heat-related issues like blast furnaces producing steel at high temperatures while maintaining integrity even if hit by flying molten metal particles from explosions nearby! Get to know the C276 pipe cost today!

Six Things to Know About Nickel Alloy 625

Nickel is a versatile metal element, which can mix with various metals to yield valuable nickel alloys. Nickel alloys are non-ferrous metals possessing high strength and toughness. They show superior corrosion resistance and have excellent elevated temperature properties. Nickel alloy 625 (UNS N06625) is a popular nickel-chromium alloy known as Inconel® 625. It is highly valuable for its high strength, excellent fabricability, and adequate corrosion resistance.

Nickel Alloy 625 Composition

The chemical composition of nickel alloy 625 tubing includes:

  • Nickel: 58.00 min
  • Chromium: 20.0-23.0
  • Molybdenum: 8.0-10.0
  • Iron: 5 min
  • Columbium and Tantalum: 3.15-4.15
  • Cobalt: 1 .00 max
  • Manganese: 0.50 max
  • Silicon: 0.50 max
  • Aluminum: 0.40 max
  • Titanium: 0.40 max
  • Carbon: 0.10 max
  • Sulfur: 0.015 max
  • Phosphorus: 0.015 max

Uses Of Nickel Alloy 625

Nickel alloy 625 is helpful in the following applications:

  • Oceanographic equipment
  • Nuclear reactor cores and control-rod components
  • Combustion system transition liners
  • Aircraft ducting systems, engine exhaust systems, and thrust-reverser systems
  • Rings and tubing for environmental control systems
  • Wire rope for mooring cables
  • Propeller blades for motor patrol gunboats
  • Meets ASME code for Boiler and Pressure Vessels

Exceptional Material Strength

In the nickel-chromium alloy base, the stiffening combination of molybdenum and niobium provides Inconel 625 with its high strength. The interaction of niobium with molybdenum strengthens the alloy matrix without any requirement for precipitation-hardening treatment. The superalloy has a tensile strength of 690 MPa and possesses a yield strength of 275 MPa.

Corrosion Resistance

Inconel 625 shows outstanding and versatile corrosion resistance under various temperatures and pressures. Hence, it is highly suitable for the chemical processing field. The unique composition of Inconel 625 optimizes its corrosion resistance capabilities. It also shows resistance to stress cracking and excellent pitting resistance in 500°-600°F (260-316°C) water. The superalloy is suitable for use in saline seawater and milder environments like fresh water and standard atmospheric conditions. When exposed to oxidizing agents, the nickel-chromium alloy matrix protects the superalloy. Molybdenum offers protection against pitting corrosion.

High-Temperature Resistance

The thermal expansion coefficient of Inconel 625 at 20°C is 1.28 x 10-5 1/K, and it has a melting point of about 1300°C. The superalloy can resist cryogenic to extremely high temperatures. In 15% sulfuric acid, the superalloy undergoes corrosion at a minimal rate of 0.188 mm per year. When exposed to oxidizing agents at high temperatures, the titanium, and niobium compositions of the oxide film on the superalloy drastically increase to form a protective covering on the material.

Fabricability

Nickel alloy 625 shows excellent fabricability. Due to its ease of fabrication, it is generally helpful in making various components for plant equipment. Inconel 625 can retain high strength at elevated temperatures and can resist deformation at hot-working temperatures. You can quickly fabricate it by hot forming, provided that you use powerful equipment. The composition of the alloy gives it better weldability than earlier alloys. It does not crack on exposure to strain and temperature changes post-welding. Because of its high creep resistance and yield strength, it is suitable for tubing, piping, and plant equipment that needs welding.

To Conclude:

These are a few essential aspects of Inconel 625. The combination of elements in the superalloy significantly augments its essential properties and makes it worthwhile across various industries.

Seven Important Properties of Stainless Steel

Stainless steel refers to a group of iron-based alloys that contain a minimum of 10.5% chromium by mass. The chromium forms an ultra-thin layer, known as the “passive layer,” on the steel that enables it to resist corrosion.  If this layer gets mechanically or chemically damaged, the passive layer self-heals itself. The addition of other elements like molybdenum, nickel, and nitrogen enhances the properties of stainless steel.

Stainless steel has been delivering phenomenal success in various industries for more than 70 years. It now comes in more than 60 grades. All of these grades come under four significant classes. It includes 300 Series Austenitic, 400 Series Ferritic, 400 Series Martensitic, and Precipitation Hardening. Due to their valuable properties, stainless steel pipe have increased service life and reduced cycle cost. It requires low maintenance and does not need painting or other protective coatings. The attractive appearance of stainless steel and its various properties, such as corrosion resistance, low maintenance, and high strength, make it more economically viable once you consider its service life and life-cycle costs.

Here are a few essential properties of stainless steel.

Corrosion Resistance

The chromium content of stainless steel imparts to it valuable corrosion resistance properties. The chromium helps form a self-healing layer on the steel surface, making it resistant to corrosion. Hence even if the steel surface gets cut or damaged, it gets self-healed. 304 stainless steel shows excellent corrosion resistance and value and can withstand corrosion from most oxidizing acids.

Cryogenic Resistance

You can measure cryogenic resistance by the material’s toughness or ductility at sub-zero temperatures. The tensile strengths and toughness of austenitic stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures are substantially higher than ambient temperatures. However, at sub-zero temperatures, you should not use martensitic, ferritic, or precipitation hardening steel. As the temperature drops, its toughness tends to decrease.

Work Hardening

The work-hardenable grades of stainless steel allow you to achieve higher strength using cold working. Combining annealing and cold working stages will help you impart the required strength to the stainless steel.

Hot Strength

At high temperatures, the austenitic grade can retain its high strength. Such properties are conducive to stainless steel with high chromium levels of silicon, nitrogen, and rare earth elements. Ferritic grade with high chromium also shows high hot strength. It enables it to display resistance to scaling at elevated temperatures.

Biologically Inert

Stainless steel is biologically inert. Hence, it is highly suitable for medical equipment like surgical tools, plates, and trauma screws. The inertness also makes it ideal for kitchen appliances and cutlery products.

Recyclability

You can recycle stainless steel to make new products. It helps to reduce strain on the environment and decreases the need for raw materials. It also helps to minimize waste formation. Since it is non-biodegradable, it does not contaminate resources, as it cannot break down and seep into water reservoirs or soil.

Ductility

The ductility of stainless steel varies across its various grades. Some grades have high ductility, which renders them suitable for strenuous deep-drawing methods.

To Conclude:

These are a few important properties of stainless steel. It makes stainless steel highly valuable across various industries to deliver success.